12c

Installing Oracle 12c on Windows 7 64bit

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Here are the steps I when through to install Oracle 12.1c on Windows 7 64 bit.

  • Unzip the two 12c downloads files into the same directory. I called this directory database

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  • Go down a couple of levels in the database directory until you come to the directory that contains setup.exe. Double click on this to start the installer.
  • Step 1 – Configure Security Updates:  Un-tick the tick-box and click the Next button. A warning message will appear. You can click on the Yes button to proceed.
  • Step 2 – Software Update : select the Skip Software Updates option and then click the Next button.
  • Step 3 – Installation Option : select the Create and Configure a Database option and then click the Next button.
  • Step 4 – System Class: Select the Server Class option and then click the Next button
  • Step 5 – Grid Installation Options : Select the Single Instance Database Installation option and then click the next button.
  • Step 6 – Install Types : Select the Typical install option and then click the Next button.
  • Step 7 – Installation Location : Select the Use Windows Built-in Account option and then click the Next button. An warning message appears. Click the Yes button.
  • Step 8 – Typical Installation.  Set Global Database Name to cdb12c for the container database name. Set the Administrative password for the container database. Set the name of the pluggable database that will be created. Set this to pdb12c. Or you can accept the default names. Then click the Next button. If you get a warning message saying the password does not conform to the recommended standards, you can click the Yes button to ignore this warning and proceed.
  • Step 9 – Prerequisite Checks : the install will check to see that you have enough space and necessary permissions etc.
  • Step 10 – Summary – You should now be ready to start the install. Click the Install button.

You can now sit back, relax and watch the installation of 12.1c complete.

You may get some Windows Security Alert windows pop up. Just click on the Allow Access button.

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Then the Database Configuration Assistant will start. This step might take a while to complete.

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When everything is done you will get something like the following

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Now you are almost ready to start using your Pluggable 12c database on windows. The final two steps that you need to do is to add an entry to your tnsnames.ora file. You can manually do this if you know what you are doing or you can select Net Configuration Assistant under the Oracle –Ora12cDB Home 1 section of the windows menu. The second thing you need to do is to create a new user/schema.

Check out my previous blog post called ‘My first steps with 12c’ for how to do these last two steps. The ‘My fist steps with 12c’ post was based on installing 12c on Linux 6.

Oracle 12c Advanced Analytics Option new features

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With the release of Oracle 12c (finally) now have a lot of learning to do. Oracle 12c is a different beast to what we have been used to up to now.

As part of the 12c there are a number of new in-database Advanced Analytics features. These are separate to the Advanced Analytics new features that come as part of the Oracle Data Miner tool, that is part of SQL Developer.

This post will only look at the new features that are part of the 12c Database. The new in-Database Advanced Analytics features include:

  • Using Decisions Trees for Text analysis is now possible. Up to now (11.2g) when you wanted to do text classification you had to exclude Decision Trees from the process. This was because the Decision Trees algorithm could not support nested data.
  • Additionally for text mining some of the text processing has been moved from having a separate step, to being part of the some of the algorithms.
  • A number of additional features are available for Clustering. These include a cluster distance (from the centroid) and details functions.
  • There is a new clustering algorithm (in addition to the K-Means and O-Cluster algorithms), called Expectation Maximization algorithm. This creates a density model that can be give better results when data from different domains are combined for clustering. This algorithm will also determine the optimal number of clusters.
  • There are two new Feature Extraction methods that are scalable for high dimensional data, large number of records, for both structured and unstructured. This can be used to reduce the number of dimensions to use as input to the data mining algorithms. The first of these is called Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and is widely used in text mining. The second method can be considered a special scoring method of SVD is called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). With this method it produces projections that are scaled with the data variance.
  • A new feature of the GLM algorithm is that it will perform a feature section step. This is used to reduce the number of predictors used by the algorithm and allow for faster builds. This will makes the outputs more understandable and model more transparent. This feature is not default so you will need to set this on if you want to use it with the GLM algorithm.
  • In previous versions of the database, there could be some performance issues that relate to the data types used. In 12c these has been addressed for BINARY_DOUBLE and BINARY_FLOAT. So if you are using these data types you should now see faster scoring of the data in 12c
  • There is new in-database feature called Predictive Queries. This allows on-the-fly models that are temporary models that are formed as part of an analytics clause. These models cannot be tuned and you cannot see the details of the model produced. They are formed for the query and do not exist afterwards.
  • SELECT cust_id, age, pred_age, age-pred_age age_diff, pred_det FROM
    (SELECT cust_id, age, pred_age, pred_det,
    RANK() OVER (ORDER BY ABS(age-pred_age) DESC) rnk FROM
    (SELECT cust_id, age,
    PREDICTION(FOR age USING *) OVER () pred_age,
    PREDICTION_DETAILS(FOR age ABS USING *) OVER () pred_det
    FROM mining_data_apply_v))
    WHERE rnk <= 5;
  • There is a new function called PREDICTION_DETAILS. This allows you to see what the algorithm used to make the prediction. For example if we want to score a customer to see if they will churn, we can use the PREDICTION and PREDITION_PROBABILITY functions to do this and to see how how strong this prediction is. With PREDICTION_DETAILS we can now see what attributes and values the algorithm used to make that particular prediction. The output is in XML format.
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These are the new in-database Advanced Analytics (Data Mining) features. Apart from the new algorithms or changes to them, most of the other changes gives greater transparency into what the algorithms/models are doing. This is good as it allows us to better understand and see what is happening.

The rest of the new Advanced Analytics Option new features will be part of Oracle Data Miner tool in SQL Developer 4. My next blog post will cover the new features in SQL Developer 4.

I haven’t mentioned anything about ORE. The reason for that is that it comes as a separate install and its current version 1.3 works the same in 11.2.0.3g as well as 12c. I’ve had some previous blog posts on this and you can check out the ORE website on OTN.

My first steps with Oracle 12c

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Oracle 12c was released just over a week ago and I’ve finally managed to get round to installing it.
This must be the first time that I have done an install of an newly release Oracle Database, where everything worked first time.  Typically I have learned from the past and have left it a few months before attempting an install.
Many thanks to Tim Hall (www.oracle-base.com) for his install instructions for Linux 6 and Oracle 12c. These are a lot simpler to follow than the actual Oracle Install documentation.
After the install had finished I was able to log into the Database Express webpage on the server. This is a cut down version of the old EM and it looks like Oracle is pushing everyone to their standalone EM tool.
[The following is what I did. I’m sure there are better and quicker ways of doing the following]
I had rebooted the VM I created for 12c and when I logged back in I could not log into the container DB or to Database Express. After a bit of digging around I found out that I needed to create a could of scripts that will run every time the VM is started so that it will start the DBs. So to get things (DB) started I ran
sqlplus / as sysdba
This got be logged into the container in nomount mode. Now I needed to start the container with the START command.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  839282688 bytes
Fixed Size            2293928 bytes
Variable Size          578817880 bytes
Database Buffers      255852544 bytes
Redo Buffers            2318336 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> show user
USER is “SYS”

To see the container DB details
SQL> select name,DB_UNIQUE_NAME from v$database;
NAME      DB_UNIQUE_NAME
——— ——————————
CDB12C      cdb12c

and to see its current status
SQL> select status from v$instance;
STATUS
————
OPEN

To see what pluggable DBs you have
SQL> SELECT v.name, v.open_mode, NVL(v.restricted, ‘n/a’) “RESTRICTED”, d.status
FROM v$pdbs v, dba_pdbs d
WHERE v.guid = d.guid
ORDER BY v.create_scn;  2    3    4 

NAME                           OPEN_MODE  RES STATUS
—————————— ———- — ————-
PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO  NORMAL
PDB12C                         MOUNT      NO  NORMAL

If PDB12C has an OPEN_MODE of MOUNT do the following to open the pluggable database
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb12c OPEN;  
(I previous had  START instead of OPEN)
To see what active services I have
SQL> select name FROM v$active_services;
NAME
—————————————————————-
pdb12c.localdomain
cdb12cXDB
cdb12c.localdomain
SYS$BACKGROUND
SYS$USERS

To create a new schema in the PDB (pdb12c) I did
sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET CONTAINER = pdb12c;
SQL> create user brendan identified by brendan
  2  default tablespace users
  3  temporary tablespace temp;

User created.
SQL> grant connect, resource to brendan1;
Grant succeeded.
SQL>
Next I opened the listener and reloaded to take in the services and the PDB that I wanted to use called PDB12c.
oracle@Oracle-12-1c etc]$ lsnrctl
LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 – Production on 09-JUL-2013 15:26:50
Copyright (c) 1991, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Welcome to LSNRCTL, type “help” for information.
LSNRCTL> help
The following operations are available
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:

start           stop            status          services       
version         reload          save_config     trace          
spawn           quit            exit            set*           
show*          

LSNRCTL> reload
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
The command completed successfully
LSNRCTL> services
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
Services Summary…
Service “cdb12c.localdomain” has 1 instance(s).
  Instance “cdb12c”, status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
    Handler(s):
      “DEDICATED” established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
Service “cdb12cXDB.localdomain” has 1 instance(s).
  Instance “cdb12c”, status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
    Handler(s):
      “D000” established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:1022 state:ready
         DISPATCHER
         (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=Oracle-12-1c.localdomain)(PORT=27389))
Service “pdb12c.localdomain” has 1 instance(s).
  Instance “cdb12c”, status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
    Handler(s):
      “DEDICATED” established:0 refused:0 state:ready
         LOCAL SERVER
The command completed successfully
LSNRCTL> exit

Next I needed to add an entry for the PDB into the tnsnames.ora file located in
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/db_01/network/admin
and added the following for the PDB and saved the tnsnames.ora file.
PDB12C =
  (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = Oracle-12-1c.localdomain)(PORT = 1521))
      (CONNECT_DATA =
      (SERVER = DEDICATED)
      (SERVICE_NAME = PDB12C.localdomain)
      )
  )

Then I was able to connect to the PDB for my ‘brendan’ schema
[oracle@Oracle-12-1c etc]$ sqlplus brendan/brendan@pdb12c
SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.1.0 Production on Tue Jul 9 17:22:30 2013
Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Last Successful login time: Tue Jul 09 2013 15:29:18 +01:00
Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL>

I hope you might find this useful.  All of the above are my notes and for me to remember what I did on my first time using 12c.

Oracle Database next release (12c) new features

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At Oracle Open World there was a number of presentation on the new features that we will see in the new release of the database, which is being called 12c, where c is for the cloud.

The 12c Database/Next Release was announce during Larry’s Sunday keynote speech. 

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Health Warning: As with all the presentations at OOW that talked about what may be in or may be in the next release, there is no guarantee that these features will actually be in the released version of the database. Here is the slide that gives the Safe Harbor statement.

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In addition to this key note there was a few additional presentations on 12c with the main one, for me, by Tom Kyte on the Thursday morning.

  • The 12c database will be a multi-tenant database. What does this mean? If means that we can have multiple databases running on the same server sharing the same memory and process management. Under the current configuration, when we create a new database on a server we create a separate set of processes and memory allocation.  Oracle is calling this, Pluggable Databases

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  • MapReduce in the Database – MapReduce can be run from PL/SQL directly in the database.
  • Improved default value management. We will be able to clearly how to allocate a value to or calculate a value as a default for a column. The first of these is that we will be able to assign a sequence to a column. Example x int default s.nextval primary key. We can then insert into a table and not worry about how to calculate a primary key value, insert into t(y) values (‘hello world’);.  We will also be able to specify a default value when no value is being inserted into a column, z number default on null 42
  • Increased size for VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2 and RAW data types up to 32K in size. You will need to se the Max_SQL_String_Size in the init.ora to EXTENDED. But this new size limit is not supported in clustered and index organised tables.
  • Some improvements to PARTITIONing, with asynchronous global index maintenance for DROP and TRUNCATE partition. New CASCADE functionality for TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE partition. You will be able to perform multiple partition operations with a single DDL command.
  • There will be better Statistics for query performance including Hybrid Historgrams, Session Private Statistics and statistics will be gathered during data loads automatically.
  • Temporary UNDO for objects will be handled in TEMP
  • Greater insight of data usage i.e .what is being used or not being used and how frequently. This allows policies in table definition (new ILM clause) to compress or archive data after time.

ALTER TABLE orders
ILM ADD CompressionPolicy
COMPRESS Partitions for Query
AFTER 90 days from creation;

This post focused on the core database new features what may be coming in 12c.

In my next blog post I will look at some of the coding/development changes that are coming in 12c and associated Oracle development tools