PL/SQL

Time Series Forecasting in Oracle – Part 2

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This is the second part about time-series data modeling using Oracle. Check out the first part here.

In this post I will take a time-series data set and using the in-database time-series functions model the data, that in turn can be used for predicting future values and trends.

The data set used in these examples is the Rossmann Store Sales data set. It is available on Kaggle and was used in one of their competitions.

Let’s start by aggregating the data to monthly level. We get.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 12.37.59

Data Set-up

Although not strictly necessary, but it can be useful to create a subset of your time-series data to only contain the time related attribute and the attribute containing the data to model. When working with time-series data, the exponential smoothing function expects the time attribute to be of DATE data type. In most cases it does. When it is a DATE, the function will know how to process this and all you need to do is to tell the function the interval.

A view is created to contain the monthly aggregated data.

-- Create input time series
create or replace view demo_ts_data as 
select to_date(to_char(sales_date, 'MON-RRRR'),'MON-RRRR') sales_date,
sum(sales_amt) sales_amt
from demo_time_series
group by to_char(sales_date, 'MON-RRRR')
order by 1 asc;

Next a table is needed to contain the various settings for the exponential smoothing function.

CREATE TABLE demo_ts_settings(setting_name VARCHAR2(30), 
                              setting_value VARCHAR2(128));

Some care is needed with selecting the parameters and their settings as not all combinations can be used.

Example 1 – Holt-Winters

The first example is to create a Holt-Winters time-series model for hour data set. For this we need to set the parameter to include defining the algorithm name, the specific time-series model to use (exsm_holt), the type/size of interval (monthly) and the number of predictions to make into the future, pass the last data point.

BEGIN
   -- delete previous setttings
   delete from demo_ts_settings;

   -- set ESM as the algorithm
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
      values (dbms_data_mining.algo_name,
              dbms_data_mining.algo_exponential_smoothing);

   -- set ESM model to be Holt-Winters
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
      values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_model,
              dbms_data_mining.exsm_holt);

   -- set interval to be month
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
      values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_interval,
              dbms_data_mining.exsm_interval_month);

   -- set prediction to 4 steps ahead
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
      values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_prediction_step,
              '4');

   commit; 
END;

Now we can call the function, generate the model and produce the predicted values.

BEGIN
   -- delete the previous model with the same name
   BEGIN 
      dbms_data_mining.drop_model('DEMO_TS_MODEL');
   EXCEPTION 
      WHEN others THEN null; 
   END;

   dbms_data_mining.create_model(model_name => 'DEMO_TS_MODEL',
                                 mining_function => 'TIME_SERIES',
                                 data_table_name => 'DEMO_TS_DATA',
                                 case_id_column_name => 'SALES_DATE',
                                 target_column_name => 'SALES_AMT',
                                 settings_table_name => 'DEMO_TS_SETTINGS');
END;

When the model is create a number of data dictionary views are populated with model details and some addition views are created specific to the model. One such view commences with DM$VP. Views commencing with this contain the predicted values for our time-series model. You need to append the name of the model create, in our example DEMO_TS_MODEL.

-- get predictions
select case_id, value, prediction, lower, upper 
from   DM$VPDEMO_TS_MODEL
order by case_id;

Screenshot 2019-04-16 16.01.14

When we plot this data we get.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 16.02.57

The blue line contains the original data values and the red line contains the predicted values. The predictions are very similar to those produced using Holt-Winters in Python.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 16.04.45

Example 2 – Holt-Winters including Seasonality

The previous example didn’t really include seasonality int the model and predictions. In this example we introduce seasonality to allow the model to pick up any trends in the data based on a defined period.

For this example we will change the model name to HW_ADDSEA, and the season size to 5 units. A data set with a longer time period would illustrate the different seasons better but this gives you an idea.

BEGIN
   -- delete previous setttings
   delete from demo_ts_settings;

   -- select ESM as the algorithm
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
   values (dbms_data_mining.algo_name,
           dbms_data_mining.algo_exponential_smoothing);

   -- set ESM model to be Holt-Winters Seasonal Adjusted
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
   values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_model,
           dbms_data_mining.exsm_HW_ADDSEA);

   -- set interval to be month
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
   values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_interval,
   dbms_data_mining.exsm_interval_month);

  -- set prediction to 4 steps ahead
  insert into demo_ts_settings 
  values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_prediction_step,
          '4');

   -- set seasonal cycle to be 5 quarters
   insert into demo_ts_settings 
   values (dbms_data_mining.exsm_seasonality,
           '5');

commit; 
END;

We need to re-run the creation of the model and produce the predicted values. This code is unchanged from the previous example.

BEGIN
   -- delete the previous model with the same name
   BEGIN 
      dbms_data_mining.drop_model('DEMO_TS_MODEL');
   EXCEPTION 
      WHEN others THEN null; 
   END;

   dbms_data_mining.create_model(model_name => 'DEMO_TS_MODEL',
                                 mining_function => 'TIME_SERIES',
                                 data_table_name => 'DEMO_TS_DATA',
                                 case_id_column_name => 'SALES_DATE',
                                 target_column_name => 'SALES_AMT',
                                 settings_table_name => 'DEMO_TS_SETTINGS');
END;

When we re-query the DM$VPDEMO_TS_MODEL we get the new values. When plotted we get.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 16.17.30

The blue line contains the original data values and the red line contains the predicted values.

Comparing this chart to the chart from the first example we can see there are some important differences between them. These differences are particularly evident in the second half of the chart, on the right hand side. We get to see there is a clearer dip in the predicted data. This mirrors the real data values better. We also see better predictions as the time line moves to the end.

When performing time-series analysis you really need to spend some time exploring the data, to understand what is happening, visualizing the data, seeing if you can identifying any patterns, before moving onto using the different models. Similarly you will need to explore the various time-series models available and the parameters, to see what works for your data and follow the patterns in your data. There is not magic solution in this case.

Explicit Semantic Analysis setup using SQL and PL/SQL

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In my previous blog post I introduced the new Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) algorithm and gave an example of how you can build an ESA model and use it. Check out this link for that blog post.

In this blog post I will show you how you can manually create an ESA model. The reason that I’m showing you this way is that the workflow (in ODMr and it’s scheduler) may not be for everyone. You may want to automate the creation or recreation of the ESA model from time to time based on certain business requirements.

In my previous blog post I showed how you can setup a training data set. This comes with ODMr 4.2 but you may need to expand this data set or to use an alternative data set that is more in keeping with your domain.

Setup the ODM Settings table

As with all ODM algorithms we need to create a settings table. This settings table allows us to store the various parameters and their values, that will be used by the algorithm.

-- Create the settings table
CREATE TABLE ESA_settings (
    setting_name VARCHAR2(30),
    setting_value VARCHAR2(30));

-- Populate the settings table
-- Specify ESA. By default, Naive Bayes is used for classification.
-- Specify ADP. By default, ADP is not used. Need to turn this on.
BEGIN
    INSERT INTO ESA_settings (setting_name, setting_value)
    VALUES (dbms_data_mining.algo_name,       
           dbms_data_mining.algo_explicit_semantic_analys);
   
    INSERT INTO ESA_settings (setting_name, setting_value)
    VALUES (dbms_data_mining.prep_auto,dbms_data_mining.prep_auto_on);
  
    INSERT INTO ESA_settings (setting_name, setting_value)
    VALUES (odms_sampling,odms_sampling_disable);
  
    commit;
END; 

These are the minimum number of parameter setting needed to run the ESA algorithm. The other ESA algorithm setting include:

NewImage

Setup the Oracle Text Policy

You also need to setup an Oracle Text Policy and a lexer for the Stopwords.

DECLARE
   v_policy_name  varchar2(30);
   v_lexer_name   varchar2(3)
BEGIN
    v_policy_name  := 'ESA_TEXT_POLICY';
    v_lexer_name   := 'ESA_LEXER';
    ctx_ddl.create_preference(v_lexer_name, 'BASIC_LEXER');
    v_stoplist_name := 'CTXSYS.DEFAULT_STOPLIST';  -- default stop list
    ctx_ddl.create_policy(policy_name => v_policy_name, lexer => v_lexer_name, stoplist => v_stoplist_name);
END;

Create the ESA model

Once we have the settings table created with the parameter values set for the algorithm and the Oracle Text policy created, we can now create the model.

To ensure that the Oracle Text Policy is applied to the text we want to analyse we need to create a transformation list and add the Text Policy to it.

We can then pass the text transformation list as a parameter to the CREATE_MODEL, procedure.

DECLARE
   v_xlst              dbms_data_mining_transform.TRANSFORM_LIST;
   v_policy_name       VARCHAR2(130) := 'ESA_TEXT_POLICY';
   v_model_name        varchar2(50) := 'ESA_MODEL_DEMO_2';
BEGIN
   v_xlst := dbms_data_mining_transform.TRANSFORM_LIST();
   DBMS_DATA_MINING_TRANSFORM.SET_TRANSFORM(v_xlst, '"TEXT"', NULL, '"TEXT"', '"TEXT"', 'TEXT(POLICY_NAME:'||v_policy_name||')(MAX_FEATURES:3000)(MIN_DOCUMENTS:1)(TOKEN_TYPE:NORMAL)');

    DBMS_DATA_MINING.DROP_MODEL(v_model_name, TRUE);
    DBMS_DATA_MINING.CREATE_MODEL(
        model_name          => v_model_name,
        mining_function     => DBMS_DATA_MINING.FEATURE_EXTRACTION,
        data_table_name     => 'WIKISAMPLE',
        case_id_column_name => 'TITLE',
        target_column_name  => NULL,
        settings_table_name => 'ESA_SETTINGS',
        xform_list          => v_xlst);
END;

NOTE: Yes we could have merged all of the above code into one PL/SQL block.

Use the ESA model

We can now use the FEATURE_COMPARE function to use the model we just created, just like I did in my previous blog post.

SELECT FEATURE_COMPARE(ESA_MODEL_DEMO_2
               USING 'Oracle Database is the best available for managing your data' text 
               AND USING 'The SQL language is the one language that all databases have in common' text) similarity 
FROM DUAL;

Go give the ESA algorithm a go and see where you could apply it within your applications.

Checking out the Oracle Reserved Words using V$RESERVED_WORDS

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When working with SQL or PL/SQL we all know there are some words we cannot use in our code or to label various parts of it. These languages have a number of reserved words that form the language.

Somethings it can be a challenge to know what is or isn’t a reserved word. Yes we can check the Oracle documentation for the SQL reserved words and the PL/SQL reserved words. There are other references and list in the Oracle documentation listing the reserved and key words.

But we also have the concept of Key Words (as opposed to reserved words). In the SQL documentation these are are not listed. In the PL/SQL documentation most are listed.

What is a Key Word in Oracle ?

Oracle SQL keywords are not reserved. BUT Oracle uses them internally in specific ways. If you use these words as names for objects and object parts, then your SQL statements may be more difficult to read and may lead to unpredictable results.

But if we didn’t have access to the documentation (or google) how can we find out what the key words are. You can use the data dictionary view called V$RESERVED_WORDS.

NewImage

But this view isn’t available to version. So if you want to get your hands on it you will need the SYS user. Alternatively if you are a DBA you could share this with all your developers.

When we query this view we get 2,175 entries (for 12.1.0.2 Oracle Database).

NewImage

Viewing Models Details for Decision Trees using SQL

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When you are working with and developing Decision Trees by far the easiest way to visualise these is by using the Oracle Data Miner (ODMr) tool that is part of SQL Developer.
Developing your Decision Tree models using the ODMr allows you to explore the decision tree produced, to drill in on each of the nodes of the tree and to see all the statistics etc that relate to each node and branch of the tree.
But when you are working with the DBMS_DATA_MINING PL/SQL package and with the SQL commands for Oracle Data Mining you don’t have the same luxury of the graphical tool that we have in ODMr. For example here is an image of part of a Decision Tree I have and was developed using ODMr.
Blog dt 1
What if we are not using the ODMr tool? In that case you will be using SQL and PL/SQL. When using these you do not have luxury of viewing the Decision Tree.
So what can you see of the Decision Tree? Most of the model details can be used by a variety of functions that can apply the model to your data. I’ve covered many of these over the years on this blog.
For most of the data mining algorithms there is a PL/SQL function available in the DBMS_DATA_MINING package that allows you to see inside the models to find out the settings, rules, etc. Most of these packages have a name something like GET_MODEL_DETAILS_XXXX, where XXXX is the name of the algorithm. For example GET_MODEL_DETAILS_NB will get the details of a Naive Bayes model. But when you look through the list there doesn’t seem to be one for Decision Trees.
Actually there is and it is called GET_MODEL_DETAILS_XML. This function takes one parameter, the name of the Decision Tree model and produces an XML formatted output that contains the attributes used by the model, the overall model settings, then for each node and branch the attributes and the values used and the other statistical measures required for each node/branch.
The following SQL uses this PL/SQL function to get the Decision Tree details for model called CLAS_DT_1_59.
SELECT dbms_data_mining.get_model_details_xml(‘CLAS_DT_1_59’)
FROM dual;

If you are using SQL Developer you will need to double click on the output column and click on the pencil icon to view the full listing.
Blog dt 2
Nothing too fancy like what we get in ODMr, but it is something that we can work with.
If you examine the XML output you will see references to PMML. This refers to the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) and this is defined by the Data Mining Group (www.dmg.org). I will discuss the PMML in another blog post and how you can use it with Oracle Data Mining.

Tokenizing a String : Using Regular Expressions

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In my previous blog post I gave some PL/SQL that performed the tokenising of a string. Check out this blog post here.

Thanks also to the people who sent me links examples of how to tokenise a string using the MODEL clause. Yes there are lots of examples of this out there on the interest.

While performing the various searches on the internet I did come across some examples of using Regular Expressions to extract the tokens. The following example is thanks to a blog post by Tanel Poder

I’ve made some minor changes to it to remove any of the special characters we want to remove.

column token format a40

define separator=” “

define mystring=”$My OTN LA Tour (2014?) will consist of Panama, CostRica and Mexico.”

define myremove=”\?|\#|\$|\.|\,|\;|\:|\&|\(|\)|\-“;

 

SELECT regexp_replace(REGEXP_REPLACE(

                 REGEXP_SUBSTR( ‘&mystring’||’&separator’, ‘(.*?)&separator’, 1, LEVEL )

                           , ‘&separator$’, ”), ‘&myremove’, ”) TOKEN

FROM

    DUAL

CONNECT BY

    REGEXP_INSTR( ‘&mystring’||’&separator’, ‘(.*?)&separator’, 1, LEVEL ) > 0

ORDER BY

LEVEL ASC

/

When we run this code we get the following output.

Token fun 3

So we have a number of options open to use to tokenise strings using SQL and PL/SQL, using a number of approaches including substring-ing, using pipelined functions, using the Model clause and also using Regular Expressions.

Tokenizing a String

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Over the past while I’ve been working a lot with text strings. Some of these have been short in length like tweets from Twitter, or longer pieces of text like product reviews. Plus others of various lengths.

In all these scenarios I have to break up the data into individual works or Tokens.

The examples given below illustrate how you can take a string and break it into its individual tokens. In addition to tokenising the string I’ve also included some code to remove any special characters that might be included with the string.

These include ? # $ . ; : &

This list of special characters to ignore are just an example and is not an exhaustive list. You can add whatever characters to the list yourself. To remove these special characters I’ve used regular expressions as this seemed to be the easiest way to do this.

Using PL/SQL

The following example shows a simple PL/SQL unit that will tokenise a string.

DECLARE

    vDelimiter VARCHAR2(5) := ‘ ‘;

    vString    VARCHAR2(32767) := ‘Hello Brendan How are you today?’||vDelimiter;

    vPosition   PLS_INTEGER;

    vToken     VARCHAR2(32767);

    vRemove    VARCHAR2(100) := ‘\?|\#|\$|\.|\,|\;|\:|\&’;

    vReplace   VARCHAR2(100) := ”;

BEGIN

    dbms_output.put_line(‘String = ‘||vString);

    dbms_output.put_line(”);

    dbms_output.put_line(‘Tokens’);

    dbms_output.put_line(‘————————‘);

   

    vPosition := INSTR(vString, vDelimiter);

   

    WHILE vPosition > 0 LOOP

   

       vToken := LTRIM(RTRIM(SUBSTR(vString, 1, vPosition-1)));

       vToken := regexp_replace(vToken, vRemove, vReplace);

   

       vString := SUBSTR(vString, vPosition + LENGTH(vDelimiter));

       dbms_output.put_line(vPosition||’: ‘||vToken);

       vPosition := INSTR(vString, vDelimiter);

   

    END LOOP;

END;

/

When we run this (with Serveroutput On) we get the following output.

Toke PLSQL

A slight adjustment is needed to the output of this code to remove the numbers or positions of the token separator/delimiter.

Tokenizer using a Function

To make this more usable we will really need to convert this into an iterative function. The following code illustrates this, how to call the function and what the output looks like.

CREATE OR replace TYPE token_list

AS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(32767);

/

 

CREATE OR replace FUNCTION TOKENIZER(pString IN VARCHAR2,

                                     pDelimiter IN VARCHAR2)

RETURN token_list pipelined

AS

    vPosition       INTEGER;

    vPrevPosition   INTEGER := 1;

    vRemove         VARCHAR2(100) := ‘\?|\#|\$|\.|\,|\;|\:|\&’;

    vReplace        VARCHAR2(100) := ”;

    vString         VARCHAR2(32767) := regexp_replace(pString, vRemove, vReplace);

BEGIN

    LOOP

       vPosition := INSTR (vString, pDelimiter, vPrevPosition);

       IF vPosition = 0 THEN

          pipe ROW (SUBSTR(vString, vPrevPosition ));

          EXIT;

       ELSE

          pipe ROW (SUBSTR(vString, vPrevPosition, vPosition – vPrevPosition ));

          vPrevPosition := vPosition + 1;

       END IF;

    END LOOP;

END TOKENIZER;

/

Here are a couple of examples to show how it works and returns the Tokens.

SELECT column_value TOKEN

FROM TABLE(tokenizer(‘It is a hot and sunny day in Ireland.’, ‘ ‘))

, dual;

Token fun 1

How if we add in some of the special characters we should see a cleaned up set of tokens.

SELECT column_value TOKEN

FROM TABLE(tokenizer(‘$$$It is a hot and sunny day in #Ireland.’, ‘ ‘))

, dual;

Token fun 2

Running PL/SQL Procedures in Parallel

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As your data volumes increase, particularly as you evolve into the big data world, you will be start to see that your Oracle Data Mining scoring functions will start to take longer and longer.  To apply an Oracle Data Mining model to new data is a very quick process. The models are, what Oracle calls, first class objects in the database. This basically means that they run Very quickly with very little overhead.

But as the data volumes increase you will start to see that your Apply process or scoring the data will start to take longer and longer. As with all OLTP or OLAP environments as the data grows you will start to use other in-database features to help your code run quicker. One example of this is to use the Parallel Option.

You can use the Parallel Option to run your Oracle Data Mining functions in real-time and in batch processing mode. The examples given below shows you how you can do this.

Let us first start with some basics. What are the typical commands necessary to setup our schema or objects to use Parallel. The following commands are examples of what we can use

ALTER session enable parallel dml;
ALTER TABLE table_name PARALLEL (DEGREE 8);
ALTER TABLE table_name NOPARALLEL;
CREATE TABLE … PARALLEL degree …
ALTER  TABLE … PARALLEL degree …
CREATE INDEX … PARALLEL degree …
ALTER  INDEX … PARALLEL degree …

You can force parallel operations for tables that have a degree of 1 by using the force option.

ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DDL;
ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DML;
ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL QUERY;

alter session force parallel query PARALLEL 2

You can disable parallel processing with the following session statements.

ALTER SESSION DISABLE PARALLEL DDL;
ALTER SESSION DISABLE PARALLEL DML;
ALTER SESSION DISABLE PARALLEL QUERY;

We can also tell the database what degree of Parallelism to use

ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL DDL PARALLEL 32;
ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL DML PARALLEL 32;
ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL QUERY PARALLEL 32;

 

Using your Oracle Data Mining model in real-time using Parallel

When you want to use your Oracle Data Mining model in real-time, on one record or a set of records you will be using the PREDICTION and PREDICTION_PROBABILITY function. The following example shows how a Classification model is being applied to some data in a view called MINING_DATA_APPLY_V.

column prob format 99.99999
SELECT cust_id,
       PREDICTION(DEMO_CLASS_DT_MODEL USING *)  Pred,
       PREDICTION_PROBABILITY(DEMO_CLASS_DT_MODEL USING *) Prob
FROM   mining_data_apply_v
WHERE  rownum <= 18
/

   CUST_ID       PRED      PROB
———- ———- ———
    100574          0    .63415
    100577          1    .73663
    100586          0    .95219
    100593          0    .60061
    100598          0    .95219
    100599          0    .95219
    100601          1    .73663
    100603          0    .95219
    100612          1    .73663
    100619          0    .95219
    100621          1    .73663
    100626          1    .73663
    100627          0    .95219
    100628          0    .95219
    100633          1    .73663
    100640          0    .95219
    100648          1    .73663
    100650          0    .60061

If the volume of data warrants the use of the Parallel option then we can add the necessary hint to the above query as illustrated in the example below.

SELECT /*+ PARALLEL(mining_data_apply_v, 4) */
       cust_id,
       PREDICTION(DEMO_CLASS_DT_MODEL USING *)  Pred,
       PREDICTION_PROBABILITY(DEMO_CLASS_DT_MODEL USING *) Prob
FROM   mining_data_apply_v
WHERE  rownum <= 18
/

If you turn on autotrace you will see that Parallel was used. So you should now be able to use your Oracle Data Mining models to work on a Very large number of records and by adjusting the degree of parallelism you can improvements.

Using your Oracle Data Mining model in Batch mode using Parallel

When you want to perform some batch scoring of your data using your Oracle Data Mining model you will have to use the APPLY procedure that is part of the DBMS_DATA_MINING package. But the problem with using a procedure or function is that you cannot give it a hint to tell it to use the parallel option. So unless you have the tables(s) setup with parallel and/or the session to use parallel, then you cannot run your Oracle Data Mining model in Parallel using the APPLY procedure.

So how can you get the DBMA_DATA_MINING.APPLY procedure to run in parallel?

The answer is that you can use the DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE package. The following steps walks you through what you need to do to use the DMBS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE package to run your Oracle Data Mining models in parallel.

The first step required is for you to put the DBMS_DATA_MINING.APPLY code into a stored procedure. The following code shows how our DEMO_CLASS_DT_MODEL can be used by the APPLY procedure and how all of this can be incorporated into a stored procedure called SCORE_DATA.

create or replace procedure score_data
is
begin

dbms_data_mining.apply(
  model_name => ‘DEMO_CLAS_DT_MODEL’,
  data_table_name => ‘NEW_DATA_TO_SCORE’,
  case_id_column_name => ‘CUST_ID’,
  result_table_name => ‘NEW_DATA_SCORED’);

end;
/

Next we need to create a Parallel Task for the DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE package. In the following example this is called ODM_SCORE_DATA.

— Create the TASK
  DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE.CREATE_TASK (‘ODM_SCORE_DATA’);

Next we need to define the Parallel Workload Chunks details

 -- Chunk the table by ROWID
DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE.CREATE_CHUNKS_BY_ROWID('ODM_SCORE_DATA', 'DMUSER', 'NEW_DATA_TO_SCORE', true, 100);
The scheduled jobs take an unassigned workload chunk, process it and will then move onto the next unassigned chunk. 
 
Now you are ready to execute the stored procedure for your Oracle Data Mining model, in parallel by 10.

DECLARE
   l_sql_stmt   varchar2(200);
BEGIN
   — Execute the DML in parallel
   l_sql_stmt := ‘begin score_data(); end;’;
  
   DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE.RUN_TASK(‘ODM_SCORE_DATA’, l_sql_stmt, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE,
                                  parallel_level => 10);
END;
/

When every thing is finished you can then clean up and remove the task using

BEGIN
   dbms_parallel_execute.drop_task(‘ODM_SCORE_DATA’);
END;
/

 

NOTE: The schema that will be running the above code will need to have the necessary privileges to run DBMS_SCHEDULER, for example

grant create job to dmuser;

Nested Tables (and Data) in Oracle & ODM

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Oracle Data Mining uses Nested data types/tables to store some of its data. Oracle Data Mining creates a number of tables/objects that contain nested data when it is preparing data for input to the data mining algorithms and when outputting certain results from the algorithms.  In Oracle 11.2g there are two nested data types used and in Oracle 12.1c we get an additional two nested data types. These are setup when you install the Oracle Data Miner Repository. If you log into SQL*Plus or SQL Developer you can describe them like any other table or object.

DM_NESTED_NUMERICALS

image

DM_NESTED_CATEGORICALS

image

The following two Nested data types are only available in 12.1c

DM_NESTED_BINARY_DOUBLES

image

DM_NESTED_BINARY_FLOATS

image

These Nested data types are used by Oracle Data Miner in preparing data for input to the data mining algorithms and for producing the some of the outputs from the algorithms.

Creating your own Nested Tables

To create your own Nested Data Types and Nested Tables you need to performs steps that are similar to what is illustrated in the following steps. These steps show you how to define a data type, how to create a nested table, how to insert data into the nested table and how to select the data from the nested table.

1. Set up the Object Type

Create a Type object that will defines the structure of the data. In these examples we want to capture the products and quantity purchased by a customer.

create type CUST_ORDER as object
(product_id     varchar2(6),
quantity_sold  number(6));
/

2. Create a Type as a Table

Now you need to create a Type as a table.

create type cust_orders_type as table of CUST_ORDER;
/

3. Create the table using the Nested Data

Now you can create the nested table.

create table customer_orders_nested (
cust_id       number(6) primary key,
order_date    date,
sales_person  varchar2(30),
c_order       CUST_ORDERS_TYPE)
NESTED TABLE c_order STORE AS c_order_table;

4. Insert a Record and Query

This insert statement shows you how to insert one record into the nested column.

insert into customer_orders_nested
values (1, sysdate, ‘BT’, CUST_ORDERS_TYPE(cust_order(‘P1’, 2)) );

When we select the data from the table we get

select * from customer_orders_nested;

   CUST_ID ORDER_DAT SALES_PERSON
———- ——— ——————————
C_ORDER(PRODUCT_ID, QUANTITY_SOLD)
—————————————————–
         1 19-SEP-13 BT
CUST_ORDERS_TYPE(CUST_ORDER(‘P1’, 2))

It can be a bit difficult to read the data in the nested column so we can convert the nested column into a table to display the results in a better way

select cust_id, order_date, sales_person, product_id, quantity_sold
from customer_orders_nested, table(c_order)

   CUST_ID ORDER_DAT SALES_PERSON                   PRODUC QUANTITY_SOLD
———- ——— —————————— —— ————-
         1 19-SEP-13 BT                             P1                 2

5. Insert many Nested Data items & Query

To insert many entries into the nested column you can do this

insert into customer_orders_nested
values (2, sysdate, ‘BT2’, CUST_ORDERS_TYPE(CUST_ORDER(‘P2’, 2), CUST_ORDER(‘P3’,3)));

When we do a Select * we get

   CUST_ID ORDER_DAT SALES_PERSON
———- ——— ——————————
C_ORDER(PRODUCT_ID, QUANTITY_SOLD)
————————————————————-
         1 19-SEP-13 BT
CUST_ORDERS_TYPE(CUST_ORDER2(‘P1’, 2))

         2 19-SEP-13 BT2
CUST_ORDERS_TYPE(CUST_ORDER2(‘P2’, 2), CUST_ORDER2(‘P3’, 3))

Again it is not easy to ready the data in the nested column, so if we convert it to a table again we now get a row being displayed for each entry in the nested column.

select cust_id, order_date, sales_person, product_id, quantity_sold
from customer_orders_nested, table(c_order);

   CUST_ID ORDER_DAT SALES_PERSON                   PRODUC QUANTITY_SOLD
———- ——— —————————— —— ————-
         1 19-SEP-13 BT                             P1                 2
         2 19-SEP-13 BT2                            P2                 2
         2 19-SEP-13 BT2                            P3                 3

12c New Data Mining functions

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With the release of Oracle 12c we get new functions/procedures and some updated ones for Oracle Data Miner that is part of the Advanced Analytics option.

The following are the new functions/procedures and the functions/procedures that have been updated in 12c, with a link to the 12c Documentation that explains what they do.

  • CLUSTER_DETAILS is a new function that predicts cluster membership for each row. It can use a pre-defined clustering model or perform dynamic clustering. The function returns an XML string that describes the predicted cluster or a specified cluster.

  • CLUSTER_DISTANCE is a new function that predicts cluster membership for each row. It can use a pre-defined clustering model or perform dynamic clustering. The function returns the raw distance between each row and the centroid of either the predicted cluster or a specified.

  • CLUSTER_ID has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined clustering model or perform dynamic clustering.

  • CLUSTER_PROBABILITY has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined clustering model or perform dynamic clustering. The data type of the return value has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

  • CLUSTER_SET has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined clustering model or perform dynamic clustering. The data type of the returned probability has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE

  • FEATURE_DETAILS is a new function that predicts feature matches for each row. It can use a pre-defined feature extraction model or perform dynamic feature extraction. The function returns an XML string that describes the predicted feature or a specified feature.

  • FEATURE_ID has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined feature extraction model or perform dynamic feature extraction.

  • FEATURE_SET has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined feature extraction model or perform dynamic feature extraction. The data type of the returned probability has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

  • FEATURE_VALUE has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined feature extraction model or perform dynamic feature extraction. The data type of the return value has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

  • PREDICTION has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined predictive model or perform dynamic prediction.

  • PREDICTION_BOUNDS now returns the upper and lower bounds of the prediction as the BINARY_DOUBLE data type. It previously returned these values as the NUMBER data type.

  • PREDICTION_COST has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined predictive model or perform dynamic prediction. The data type of the returned cost has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

  • PREDICTION_DETAILS has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined predictive model or perform dynamic prediction.

  • PREDICTION_PROBABILITY has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined predictive model or perform dynamic prediction. The data type of the returned probability has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

  • PREDICTION_SET has been enhanced so that it can either use a pre-defined predictive model or perform dynamic prediction. The data type of the returned probability has been changed from NUMBER to BINARY_DOUBLE.

Part 3–Getting start with Statistics for Oracle Data Science projects

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This is the Part 3 blog post on getting started with Statistics for Oracle Data Science projects.

The table below is a collection of most of the statistical functions in Oracle 11.2. The links in the table bring you to the relevant section of the Oracle documentation where you will find a description of each function, the syntax and some examples of each.

ABS

LENGTH2

REGR_AVGX

ACOS

LENGTH4

REGR_ACGY

Aggregrate functions

LENGTHB

REGR_COUNT

Analytic functions

LENGTHC

REGR_INTERCEPT

Arithmetic operators

LN

REGR_R2

ASIN

LNNVL

REGR_SLOPE

ATAN

LOG

REGR_SXX

ATAN2

LOWER

REGR_SXY

AVG

LPAD

REGR_SYY

CAST

LTRIM

ROLLUP clause

Comparison functions

MAX

ROUND

CONCAT

MEDIAN

SAMPLE

CORR

MIN

SIN

CORR_K

MOD

SINH

CORR_S

MODEL clause

SQRT

COS

NTH_VALUE

STATS_BINOMIAL_TEST

COSH

Numeric Functions

STATS_CROSSTAB

COUNT

PERCENT_RANK

STATS_F_TEST

COVAR_POP

PERCENTILE_CONT

STATS_KS_TEST

COVAR_SAMP

PERCENTILE_DISC

STATS_MODE

CUBE clause

Pivot operations

STATS_MW_TEST

CUME_DIST

POWER

STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA

CV

PREDICTION

STATS_T_TEST_INDEP

Data functions

PREDICTION_BOUNDS

STATS_T_TEST_INDEPU

DENSE_RANK

PREDICTION_COST

STATS_T_TEST_ONE

EXP

PREDICTION_PROBABILITY

STATS_T_TEST_PAIRED

FLOOR

PREDICTION_SET

STATS_WSR_TEST

GREATEST

PRESENTNNV

STDDEV

Grouping Sets

PRESENTNTV

STDEEV_POP

INTERSECT

Prior clause

STDDEV_SAMP

Interval arithmetic

PRIOR

SUM

INTERVAL

RANK

TAN

Julian dates

RAWTOHEX

TANH

LAG

REGEXP_COUNT

t-test

LAST

REGEXP_INSTR

VAR_POP

LEAD

REGEXP_LIKE

VAR_SAMP

LEAST

REGEXP_REPLACE

VARIANCE

LENGTH

REGEXP_SUBSTR

WIDTH_BUCKET

The list about may not be complete (I’m sure it is not), but it will cover most of what you will need to use in your Oracle projects.

If you come across or know of other useful statistical functions in Oracle let me know the details and I will update the table above to include them.

DBMS_PREDICTIVE_ANALYTICS & Explain

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There are 2 PL/SQL packages for performing data mining/predictive analytics in Oracle. The main PL/SQL package is DBMS_DATA_MINING. This package allows you to build data mining models and to apply them to new data. But there is another PL/SQL package.

The DBMS_PREDICTIVE_ANALYTICS package is very different to the DBMS_DATA_MINING package. The DBMS_PREDICTIVE_ANALYTICS package includes routines for predictive analytics, an automated form of data mining. With predictive analytics, you do not need to be aware of model building or scoring. All mining activities are handled internally by the predictive analytics procedure.

Predictive analytics routines prepare the data, build a model, score the model, and return the results of model scoring. Before exiting, they delete the model and supporting objects.

The package comes with the following functions: EXPLAIN, PREDICT and PROFILE. To get some of details about these functions we can run the following in SQL.

image

This blog post will look at the EXPLAIN function.

EXPLAIN creates an attribute importance model. Attribute importance uses the Minimum Description Length algorithm to determine the relative importance of attributes in predicting a target value. EXPLAIN returns a list of attributes ranked in relative order of their impact on the prediction. This information is derived from the model details for the attribute importance model.

Attribute importance models are not scored against new data. They simply return information (model details) about the data you provide.

I’ve written two previous blog posts on Attribute Importance. One of these was on how to calculate Attribute Importance using the Oracle Data Miner tool. In the ODM tool it is now called Feature Selection and is part of the Filter Columns node and the Attribute Importance model is not persisted in the database.  The second blog post was how you can create the Attribute Importance using the DBMS_DATA_MINING package.

EXPLAIN ranks attributes in order of influence in explaining a target column.

The syntax of the function is

DBMS_PREDICTIVE_ANALYTICS.EXPLAIN (
data_table_name IN VARCHAR2,
explain_column_name IN VARCHAR2,
result_table_name IN VARCHAR2,
data_schema_name IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL);
where

data_table_name = Name of input table or view

explain_column_name = Name of column to be explained

result_table_name = Name of table where results are saved. It creates a new table in your schema.

data_schema_name = Name of schema where the input table or view resides. Default: the current schema.

So when calling the function you do not have to include the last parameter.

Using the same example what I have given in the previous blog posts (see about for the links to these) the following command can be run to generate the Attribute Importance.

BEGIN

    DBMS_PREDICTIVE_ANALYTICS.EXPLAIN(

        data_table_name      => ‘mining_data_build_v’,

        explain_column_name  => ‘affinity_card’,

        result_table_name    => ‘PA_EXPLAIN’);

END;

One thing that stands out is that it is a bit slower to run than the DBMS_DATA_MINING method. On my laptop it took approx. twice to three time longer to run. But in total it was less than a minute.

To display the results,

image

The results are ranked in a 0 to 1 range. Any attribute that had a negative value are set to zero.

Part 1–Getting started with Statistics for Oracle Data Science projects

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With all analytics or data science projects one of the first steps typically involves the extraction of data from various sources, merging the data and then performing various statistics.

The extraction and merging of the data is well covered by lots of other people blogging about how to use Oracle Data Integration (ODI), Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB), among many others.

What I’m going to look at in this series of blog posts will be what statistical functions you might look at using in the Oracle and how to use them.

  • This the first blog post in the series will look at the DBMS_STAT_FUNCS PL/SQL package, what it can be used for and I give some sample code on how to use it in your data science projects. I also give some sample code that I typically run to gather some additional stats.
  • The second blog post will look at some of the other statistical functions that exist in SQL that you will/may use regularly in your data science projects.
  • The third blog post will provide a summary of the other statistical functions that exist in the database.

These statistical functions can be grouped into 2 main types. The first is the descriptive statistics that are available by using the DBMS_STAT_FUNCS PL/SQL package and then there is the extensive list of other SQL stats functions.  It is worth mentioning at this point that all these stats packages and functions come as standard in the database (i.e. they are FREE, you do not have to pay for an add on option for the database to use them). So once you have you Oracle database installed you can start using them. There is no need to spend money buying another stats package to do stats. All you need to know is some SQL and what the stats functions are.

DBMS_STAT_FUNCS

One of the stats package that I use a lot is the SUMMARY function. This is part of the DBMS_STAT_FUNC PL/SQL package. This package calculates a number of common statistics for an attribute in a table. Yes that’s correct, it only gather statistics for just one attribute. So you will have to run it for all the numeric attributes in the table.

For does people who are familiar with the Oracle Data Miner tool, the explore data node produces a lot of these statistics that the SUMMARY function produces. See below for details of how to produce the Histograms.

The SUMMARY function has the following parameters

image

Although you will probably be running this this function on the data in your schema you still have to give the schema name. The table name is the name of the table where the data exists, the column name is the name of the column that contains the actual data you want to analyse, and the ‘s’ is the record that will be returned by the SUMMARY function that contains all the summary information.

An example of the basic script to run the SUMMARY function is given below. It will use the data that is available in the sample schemas and the views that where setup for the Oracle Data Mining sample schemas. The table (or in this case the view) that we are going to use is the MINING_DATA_BUILD_V. What we are going to do is to replicate some of what the Explore Node does in the Oracle Data Miner tool.

set serveroutput on

declare
   s         DBMS_STAT_FUNCS.SummaryType;
begin
 
   DBMS_STAT_FUNCS.SUMMARY(‘DMUSER’, ‘MINING_DATA_BUILD_V’, ‘AGE’, 3, s);

   dbms_output.put_line(‘SUMMARY STATISTICS’);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Count  : ‘||s.count);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Min    : ‘||s.min);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Max    : ‘||s.max);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Range  : ‘||s.range);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Mean   : ‘||round(s.mean));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Mode Count : ‘||s.cmode.count);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Mode        : ‘||s.cmode(1));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Variance    : ‘||round(s.variance));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Stddev      : ‘||round(s.stddev));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Quantile 5  : ‘||s.quantile_5);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Quantile 25 : ‘||s.quantile_25);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Median      : ‘||s.median);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Quantile 75 : ‘||s.quantile_75);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Quantile 95 : ‘||s.quantile_95);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Extreme Count : ‘||s.extreme_values.count);
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Extremes      : ‘||s.extreme_values(1));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Top 5 : ‘||s.top_5_values(1)||’,’||
                                                s.top_5_values(2)||’,’||
                                                s.top_5_values(3)||’,’||
                                                s.top_5_values(4)||’,’||
                                                s.top_5_values(5));
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Bottom 5 : ‘||s.bottom_5_values(5)||’,’||
                                                     s.bottom_5_values(4)||’,’||
                                                     s.bottom_5_values(3)||’,’||
                                                     s.bottom_5_values(2)||’,’||
                                                     s.bottom_5_values(1));
end;
/

image

We can compare this to what is produced by the Explore Node in ODM

image

image

We can see that the Explore Node gives us more statistics to help us with understanding the data.

What Statistics does the Explore Node produce

We can see the actual SQL code that the Explore Node runs to get the statistics that are displayed in the Explore Node View Data window. To do this you will need to right-click on the Explore Node and move the mouse down to the Deploy option. The submenu will open and select ‘SQL to Clipboard’ from the list. Open a text editor and past the code. You  will need to tidy up some of this code to point it at the actual data source you want. You will get the following

SELECT /*+ inline */  ATTR, 
       DATA_TYPE, 
       NULL_PERCENT, 
       DISTINCT_CNT, 
       DISTINCT_PERCENT, 
       MODE_VALUE,
       AVG,
       MIN,
       MAX,
       STD,
       VAR,
       SKEWNESS,
       KURTOSIS,
       HISTOGRAMS
FROM OUTPUT_1_23;

Where OUTPUT_1_23 is a working table that ODM has created to store intermediate results from some of its processing. In this case the Explore Node. You will need to change this to the ODM working table in your schema.

This query does not perform any of the statistics gathering. It just presents the results.

Creating our own Statistics gathering script – Part 1

The attribute names in the above SQL query tells us what statistics functions within Oracle that were used. We can replicate this statistics gathering task using the following script. There are four parts to this script. The first part gathers most of the common statistics for the attribute. The second and third parts calculate the Skewness and Kurtosis for the attribute. The final (fourth) part combines the first three parts and lists the outputs.

The one statistic function that we are not including at this point is the Histogram information. I will cover this in the next (second) blog post on statistics.

The following script has the data source table/view name included (MINING_DATA_BUILD_V) and the attribute we are going to use (AGE).  You will need to modify this script to run it for each attribute.

WITH
    basic_statistics AS (select (sum(CASE WHEN age IS NULL THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*))*100 null_percent,
          count(*)    num_value,
          count(distinct age)   distinct_count,
          (count(distinct age)/count(*))*100     distinct_percent,
          avg(age)      avg_value,
          min(age)      min_value,
          max(age)     max_value,
          stddev(age)  std_value,
          stats_mode(age)   mode_value,
          variance(age)       var_value
        from   mining_data_build_v),
    skewness AS (select avg(SV) S_value
                 from (select power((age – avg(age) over ())/stddev(age) over (), 3) SV
                       from mining_data_build_v) ),
    kurtosis AS (select avg(KV) K_value
                 from (select power((age – avg(age) over ())/stddev(age) over (), 4) KV
                       from mining_data_build_v) )
SELECT null_percent,
       num_value,
       distinct_percent,
       avg_value,
       min_value,
       max_value,
       std_value,
       mode_value,
       var_value,
       S_value,
       K_value
from basic_statistics,
     skewness,
     kurtosis;

image

Part 2 – Lets do it for all the attributes in a table

In the code above I’ve shown how you can gather the statistics for one particular attribute of one table.But in with an analytics project you will want to gather the statistics on all the attributes.

What we can do is to take the code above and put it into a procedure. This procedure accepts a table name as input, loops through the attributes for this table and calculates the various statistics. The statistics are saved in a table called DATA_STATS (see below).

drop table data_stats;

create table DATA_STATS (
table_name VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL,
column_name VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL,
data_type VARCHAR2(106) NOT NULL,
data_length NUMBER,
data_percision NUMBER,
data_scale NUMBER,
num_records NUMBER,
distinct_count NUMBER,
null_percent NUMBER,
distinct_percent NUMBER,
avg_value NUMBER,
min_value NUMBER,
max_value NUMBER,
std_value NUMBER,
mode_value VARCHAR2(1000),
var_value NUMBER,
s_value NUMBER,
k_value NUMBER,
PRIMARY KEY (table_name, column_name));

This is one of the first things that I do when I start on a new project. I create the DATA_STATS table and run my procedure GATHER_DATA_STATS for each table that we will be using. By doing this it allows me to have a permanent records of the stats for each attribute and saves me time in having to rerun various stats at different points of the project. I can also use these stats to produces some additional stats or to produce some graphs.

He is the code for the GATHER_DATA_STATS procedure.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE gather_data_stats(p_table_name IN varchar2) AS

   cursor c_attributes (c_table_name varchar2)
                       is SELECT table_name,
                                 column_name,
                                 data_type,
                                 data_length,
                                 data_precision,
                                 data_scale
                          FROM user_tab_columns
                          WHERE table_name = upper(c_table_name);

   v_sql     NUMBER;
   v_rows    NUMBER;
BEGIN
   dbms_output.put_line(‘Starting to gather statistics for ‘||upper(p_table_name)||’ at ‘||to_char(sysdate,’DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS’));

   FOR r_att in c_attributes(p_table_name) LOOP
      —
      — remove any previously generated stats
      —
      v_sql := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR;
      DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_sql, ‘delete from DATA_STATS where table_name = ”’||r_att.table_name||”’ and column_name = ”’||r_att.column_name||””, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE);
      v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_sql);
–dbms_output.put_line(‘delete from DATA_STATS where table_name = ”’||r_att.table_name||”’ and column_name = ”’||r_att.column_name||””);

      IF r_att.data_type = ‘NUMBER’ THEN
         dbms_output.put_line(r_att.table_name||’ : ‘||r_att.column_name||’ : ‘||r_att.data_type);

         —
         — setup the insert statement and execute
         —
         v_sql := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR;
         DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_sql, ‘insert into data_stats select ”’||r_att.table_name||”’, ”’||r_att.column_name||”’, ”’||r_att.data_type||”’, ‘||r_att.data_length||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_precision,0)||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_scale,0)||’, count(*) num_value, (sum(CASE WHEN ‘||r_att.column_name||’ IS NULL THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*))*100 null_percent, count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’) distinct_count, (count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’)/count(*))*100 distinct_percent, avg(‘||r_att.column_name||’) avg_value, min(‘||r_att.column_name||’) min_value, max(‘||r_att.column_name||’) max_value, stddev(‘||r_att.column_name||’) std_value, stats_mode(‘||r_att.column_name||’) mode_value, variance(‘||r_att.column_name||’) var_value, null, null from ‘|| r_att.table_name, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE);
         v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_sql);

      ELSIF r_att.data_type IN (‘CHAR’, ‘VARCHAR’, ‘VARCHAR2’) THEN
         dbms_output.put_line(r_att.table_name||’ : ‘||r_att.column_name||’ : ‘||r_att.data_type);

         —
         — We need to gather a smaller number of stats for the character attributes
         —
         v_sql := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR;
         begin

         DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_sql, ‘insert into data_stats select ”’||r_att.table_name||”’, ”’||r_att.column_name||”’, ”’||r_att.data_type||”’, ‘||r_att.data_length||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_precision,0)||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_scale,0)||’, count(*) num_value, (sum(CASE WHEN ‘||r_att.column_name||’ IS NULL THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*))*100 null_percent, count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’) distinct_count, (count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’)/count(*))*100 distinct_percent, null, null, null, null, stats_mode(‘||r_att.column_name||’) mode_value, null, null, null from ‘|| r_att.table_name, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE);
         v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_sql);

— dbms_output.put_line(‘insert into data_stats select ”’||r_att.table_name||”’, ”’||r_att.column_name||”’, ”’||r_att.data_type||”’, ‘||r_att.data_length||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_precision,0)||’, ‘||nvl(r_att.data_scale,0)||’, count(*) num_value, (sum(CASE WHEN ‘||r_att.column_name||’ IS NULL THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)/COUNT(*))*100 null_percent, count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’) distinct_count, (count(distinct ‘||r_att.column_name||’)/count(*))*100 distinct_percent, null, null, null, null, stats_mode(‘||r_att.column_name||’) mode_value, null, null, null from ‘|| r_att.table_name);
         exception
         when others then
            dbms_output.put_line(v_rows);
         end;

      ELSE
         dbms_output.put_line(‘Unable to gather statistics for ‘||r_att.column_name||’ with data type of ‘||r_att.data_type||’.’);
      END IF;
   END LOOP;

   dbms_output.put_line(‘Finished gathering statistics for ‘||upper(p_table_name)||’ at ‘||to_char(sysdate,’DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS’));
  
   commit;
END;

Then to run it for a table:

exec gather_data_stats(‘mining_data_build_v’);

We can view the contents of the DATA_STATS table by executing the following in SQL*Plus or SQL Developer

select * from DATA_STATS;

image