Artificial Intelligence

Responsible AI: Principles & Standards around the World

Posted on Updated on

During 2019 there was been a increase awareness of AI and the need for Responsible AI. During 2020 (and beyond) we will see more and more on this topic. To get you started on some of the details and some background reading, here are links to various Principles and Standards for Responsible AI from around the World.

Standard/Principles Description
EU AI Ethics Guidelines T​he Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence developed by EU High-Level Expert Group on AI ​highlights that trustworthy AI should be lawful, ethical and robust. Puts forward seven key requirements for AI systems should meet in order to be deemed trustworthy, including among others ​diversity, non-discrimination, societal and environmental well-being, transparency and accountability.
OECD principles on Artificial Intelligence OECD’s ​member​ countries along with partner countries adopted the first ever set of intergovernmental policy guidelines on ​AI​, agreeing to uphold international standards ​that aim to ensure AI systems are ​designed in a way that respects the rule of law, human rights, democratic values and diversity. They emphasize that AI should benefit people and the planet by driving inclusive growth, sustainable development and well-being.
CoE: Human Rights impacts of Algorithms Council of Europe draft recommendation on the human rights impacts of algorithmic AI systems, released for consultation in August 2019 and to be adopted in early 2020. ​The document explicitly refers to the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights as a guidance for due diligence process and ​Human ​Rights Impact Assessments.
IEEE Global Initiative: ​Ethically Aligned Design Ethically Aligned Design (EAD) Document is created ​​to ​educate a broader public ​and to inspire ​academics, engineers, policy makers and manufacturers of autonomous and intelligent systems​ to take action ​on prioritiz​ing ethical considerations​​.​ The general principles for AI design, manufacturing and use include: human rights, wellbeing, ​data agency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, awareness of misuse, competence. ​The unique IEEE P7000 Standards series address specific issues at the intersection of technology and ethics​ and aimed to empower innovation across borders and enable societal benefit.
UN Sustainable Development Goals The UN Sustainable Goals include the annual ​AI for Good Global Summit is the leading UN platform for global and inclusive dialogue on how artificial intelligence could help accelerate progress towards the ​​Global Goals.
UN Business ​and Human Rights The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs)gives a framework offering a roadmap​ to navigate responsibility-related challenges, rapid ​technological disruption and rising ​inequality, business has a ​unique opportunity ​to implement​ human-centered innovation by taking into account ​social, ethical​ and human rights implications of AI.
EU Collaborative Platforms and Social Learning Several EU countries have ​​articulated their ambitions related to artificial intelligence, it is of paramount importance to find your unique voice, ​​track and join ​essential conversations, strategically engage in collective efforts and leave meaningful digital footprint.​

Demographics vs Psychographics for Machine Learning

Posted on Updated on

When preparing data for data science, data mining or machine learning projects you will create a data set that describes the various characteristics of the subject or case record. Each attribute will contain some descriptive information about the subject and is related to the target variable in some way.

In addition to these attributes, the data set will be enriched with various other internal/external data to complete the data set.

Some of the attributes in the data set can be grouped under the heading of Demographics. Demographic data contains attributes that explain or describe the person or event each case record is focused on. For example, if the subject of the case record is based on Customer data, this is the “Who” the demographic data (and features/attributes) will be about. Examples of demographic data include:

  • Age range
  • Marital status
  • Number of children
  • Household income
  • Occupation
  • Educational level

These features/attributes are typically readily available within your data sources and if they aren’t then these name be available from a purchased data set.

Additional feature engineering methods are used to generate new features/attributes that express meaning is different ways. This can be done by combining features in different ways, binning, dimensionality reduction, discretization, various data transformations, etc. The list can go on.

The aim of all of this is to enrich the data set to include more descriptive data about the subject. This enriched data set will then be used by the machine learning algorithms to find the hidden patterns in the data. The richer and descriptive the data set is the greater the likelihood of the algorithms in detecting the various relationships between the features and their values. These relationships will then be included in the created/generated model.

Another approach to consider when creating and enriching your data set is move beyond the descriptive features typically associated with Demographic data, to include Pyschographic data.

Psychographic data is a variation on demographic data where the feature are about describing the habits of the subject or customer.  Demographics focus on the “who” while psycographics focus on the “why”. For example, a common problem with data sets is that they describe subjects/people who have things in common. In such scenarios we want to understand them at a deeper level. Psycographics allows us to do this. Examples of Psycographics include:

  • Lifestyle activities
  • Evening activities
  • Purchasing interests – quality over economy,  how environmentally concerned are you
  • How happy are you with work, family, etc
  • Social activities and changes in these
  • What attitudes you have for certain topic areas
  • What are your principles and beliefs

The above gives a far deeper insight into the subject/person and helps to differentiate each subject/person from each other, when there is a high similarity between all subjects in the data set. For example, demographic information might tell you something about a person’s age, but psychographic information will tell you that the person is just starting a family and is in the market for baby products.

I’ll close with this. Consider the various types of data gathering that companies like Google, Facebook, etc perform. They gather lots of different types of data about individuals. This allows them to build up a complete and extensive profile of all activities for individuals. They can use this to deliver more accurate marketing and advertising. For example, Google gathers data about what places to visit throughout a data, they gather all your search results, and lots of other activities. They can do a lot with this data. but now they own Fitbit. Think about what they can do with that data and particularly when combined with all the other data they have about you. What if they had access to your medical records too!  Go Google this ! You will find articles about them now having access to your health records. Again combine all of the data from these different data sources. How valuable is that data?

 

Ethics in the AI, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc Era

Posted on Updated on

Ethics is one of those topics that everyone has a slightly different definition or view of what it means. The Oxford English dictionary defines ethics as, ‘Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity‘.

As you can imagine this topic can be difficult to discuss and has many, many different aspects.

In the era of AI, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc the topic of Ethics is finally becoming an important topic. Again there are many perspective on this. I’m not going to get into these in this blog post, because if I did I could end up writing a PhD dissertation on it. 

But if you do work in the area of AI, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc you do need to think about the ethical aspects of what you do. For most people, you will be working on topics where ethics doesn’t really apply. For example, examining log data, looking for trends, etc

But when you start working of projects examining individuals and their behaviours then you do need to examine the ethical aspects of such work. Everyday we experience adverts, web sites, marketing, etc that has used AI, Machine Learning and Data Science to delivery certain product offerings to us.

Just because we can do something, doesn’t mean we should do it.

One particular area that I will not work on is Location Based Advertising. Imagine walking down a typical high street with lots and lots of retail stores. Your phone vibrates and on the screen there is a message. The message is a special offer or promotion for one of the shops a short distance ahead of you. You are being analysed. Your previous buying patterns and behaviours are being analysed, Your location and direction of travel is being analysed. Some one, or many AI applications are watching you. This is not anything new and there are lots of examples of this from around the world.

But what if this kind of Location Based Advertising was taken to another level. What if the shops had cameras that monitored the people walking up and down the street. What if those cameras were analysing you, analysing what clothes you are wearing, analysing the brands you are wearing, analysing what accessories you have, analysing your body language, etc. They are trying to analyse if you are the kind of person they want to sell to. They then have staff who will come up to you, as you are walking down the street, and will have customised personalised special offers on products in their store, just for you.

See the segment between 2:00 and 4:00 in this video.  This gives you an idea of what is possible.

Are you Ok with this?

As an AI, Machine Learning, Data Science professional, are you Ok with this?

The technology exists to make this kind of Location Based Marketing possible. This will be an increasing ethical consideration over the coming years for those who work in the area of AI, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc

Just because we can, doesn’t mean we should!